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Ion Exchange & Demineralisation

Technical Products, Deserve Technical People

Ion exchange technology, which has been employed since the 1940s, is a widely used method for improving water quality across numerous manufacturing sectors including pharmaceutical, power generation, and food & beverage industries. The process functions by allowing water to pass through a column of minute resin beads, typically 0.5-1mm in diameter, resulting in an exchange of undesirable ions for more preferable ones.

One of the more advanced applications of Ion Exchange Resin is in the production of ultrapure water. The resistivity of this ultrapure water is typically greater than 18 megohms-cm, and its conductivity is less than 0.055 microsiemens/cm. These measurements highlight the water's exceptional purity and reflect the minimal presence of ionized solids.

Resistivity (measured in megohms-cm) and conductivity (measured in microsiemens/cm or µS/cm) are inversely related properties of water that indicate the number of ionizable solids dissolved in it. High resistivity indicates low ion content, which suggests that the water is highly pure. Conversely, high conductivity signifies a high level of ionizable solids, indicating lower water purity.

In the context of industrial and manufacturing applications, ultrapure water (>18 megohms-cm resistivity or <0.055 µS/cm conductivity) is essential because any presence of ionizable solids can interfere with manufacturing processes. For example, in semiconductor manufacturing, where resistivity often must exceed 18 megohms-cm, impurities can cause defects in the microchips. According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), even minute traces of contamination can have a profound impact on production yield and cost.

With a robust ion exchange system, you can reach an efficiency of up to 99% for ion removal, resulting in water with high resistivity and low conductivity, in other words, ultrapure water. A study by the Water Quality Association suggests that with optimal conditions and proper maintenance, ion exchange processes can be extremely efficient in generating ultrapure water.

Economically, ion exchange is a preferable solution for many businesses. Compared to some membrane technologies, capital cost reductions can go up to 60%, according to a study by Global Water Intelligence. This affordability doesn't compromise on the technology's benefits, which include ease of use and maintenance, efficient conservation of water and energy, and high removal rates of undesirable ions.

Parameter Value
Process Principle Exchange of undesirable ions with preferable ions
Typical Resin Bead Size 0.5 - 1mm
Efficiency (Optimal Conditions) >99%
Energy Consumption Reduction Up to 40% 
Removal Rate of Undesirable Ions Up to 99.9% 
Ultrapure Water Resistivity >18 megohms-cm 
Ultrapure Water Conductivity <0.055 microsiemens/cm


Hydra-Clear Process Water offers a broad range of ion exchange solutions, such as Base Exchange (Softening), Organic Scavengers, De-Alkalisation, Co- Flow Regeneration, Counter Flow Regeneration, Demineralisation Twin Beds (Cation and Anion), and Mixed Bed Polishing. We're well equipped to supply various types of Ion Exchange Resins and maintain an ample stock of the most commonly used Cation and Anion exchange resins.

With a wealth of experience in resin changes on water treatment plants, our team of skilled engineers can manage any resin change and commission the plant post-change, ensuring that your operations continue without interruption.

Contact us today for your ion exchange inquiries. Our experts are prepared to guide you in understanding, implementing, and optimizing ion exchange processes to meet your unique water quality needs.